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If the latter claim were made, we should be obliged to give up the task of writing his- tory, at least of writing ancient history ; we should have to acquiesce in the saying that all so-called history is a fable convenue. By-and-by the attempt was made by a lex Servilia to abrogate the judi- ciary law of C. : His consulibus per Servilixim Csepionem consulem iudicia equitibus et senatoribus communicata. They are not refuted by the following passage of Tacitus (Annal. 60) : Cum Semproniis rogationibus equester ordo in possessione iudiciorum locaretur aut rursum Servilise leges senatui iudicia redderent, Mariusque et Sulla olim de eo vel prsecipue bellarent. Problems of a different kind also remained to be solved, problems which had never been lost sight of by large-minded men since the time of the Gracchi, fore- most among which were the extirpation of pauperism in town and country, and the equalisation of the rights of the Italian allies with those of Roman citizens. Subordinate commands were entrusted to Marius Egnatius, the Marsian Vettius Cato, the Lucanian Marcus Lam- ponius, the Picentian Caius Judacilius, the Marrucinian Herius Asinius, and a few more, all of them, no doubt, men who had rendered important services in the wars with Numidians and the Cimbri and Teutones, but who had, owing to their political status, been confined to the lower grades, and whose names had never been mentioned in the reports of the Roman generals.

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I have not aimed at painting in those neutral tints which, if they do not give the wrong colours, cannot give the right colours either. 2 At the same time, on the motion of the tribune Q. Occupation Yenusia was not the only place lost to Rome.

But I have tried to aspire to that which is the highest and the most difficult virtue of an historian, impartiality an impartiality which does not shrink from pronouncing judgment, but which guides the judge, even in passing sentence, to a just discrimination between right and wrong. Yarius, a judicial commission was appointed for the prosecution and punishment of those members of the Roman nobility who had favoured the cause of the allies, or, in the terms adopted by the prosecution, who had stirred up the allies to rebellion. The slum and Italians also obtained possession of Canusium, near the other river Aufidus, and of a number of other places.

Thus the number of questions to which we cannot give an answer is deplorably great, and we have, moreover, the uneasy feeling that much of what is accepted as true and unimpeachable only appears so because we happen to vi PEEFACE. All the attempts that were made were partial, paltry, and so feeble that the proposed measures were either not carried or soon again set aside. These were supposed to belong to the lex Servilia ; but it is most probable that they are parts of a lex Acilia, twice quoted by Cicero (in Verr. By the constitution Glaucia was disqualified because he still held the office of prsetor. THE man who attempted the great and noble task of deal- ing with the internal diseases of the republic was the youthful tribune of the year 91 B. In that case the insufficiency of the new organization is still more apparent, and the radical faults connected with the legislative assemblies at Rome would have been repeated 011 a magnified scale.

have no independent contradictory statements, and arc- therefore not entitled to reject reports, though they may seem from internal evidence to be open to the most serious doubts. A gradual reform in detail would not in itself have been hopeless. 132, is of opinion that the rogation of Servi- lius Csepio was not. But the way in which it is mentioned allows of no doubt that it became law. ] was long the general opinion that remnants of this Servilian law had been preserved. But constitutional scruples did not disconcert men of -his stamp. Both parties were already accustomed to employ force to carry an important measure, and mustered their supporters for a de- cisive combat. C., Marcus Livius Drusus, son of that Livius Drusus who, as tribune in 122 B. Gracchus by his agrarian proposals, for the purpose of undermining the popularity of the reformer. In Rome itself there was at least a vast population containing a considerable proportion of the total of Roman citizens; and great numbers of those who were settled in the country, tribes even at great distances from the capital, were from time to time drawn to Rome by business or pleasure, so that the assemblies in the Forum or the Campus Martius might to some extent be looked upon as a fair representation of the people.

I have not felt bound to palliate faults, to explain away errors, to justify acts of cruelty or treachery, still less to heap accusations, sarcasm, depreciation, and contempt upon all the enemies of Rome. Unfortunately we are not informed to what extent this division among the allies was produced by the hostility between the local aris- tocracy and the common people.