Based on the exchange theory, Hughes witnessed an individual dependency on either partner as the exchange of resources, knowledge, rewards, and costs of items, becomes more and more prominent.
Any partner that is not fully dependent upon the other typically controls the casual relationship.
They normally control when they meet up, when they have sex, and when they do things together.
Hughes's study also revealed the four main categories of why partners participating in a casual relationship did not feel the need to tell their same sex friends about the relationship.
The dependent partner is more submissive to their dominant partner as they do not want the relationship to end.